多架飞机被击落,印巴战争会全面爆发吗?

【波士顿双语网讯】印度和巴基斯坦之间在克什米尔问题上的紧张关系,已经蔓延到所有冲突之上,预示着战争的风潮。昨天,印度空军称轰炸了巴基斯坦领土,摧毁了一个恐怖份子训练营,超过350人死亡。但巴基斯坦方面称印度空军的炸弹扔到荒野上,并没有造成任何伤亡。今天上午,巴基斯坦军队高级官员卡孚(Asif Ghafoor)证实,伊斯兰堡的防空炮击落了两架袭击巴基斯坦领土的印度喷气式飞机,并抓获了其中一名飞行员。


这架飞机违反了控制线(LoC)上的禁飞区,这是在有争议的克什米尔地区划分两国的边界。伊斯兰堡政府的反应,是在昨天印度飞机的反复轰炸之后发生的事,德里希望巴基斯坦「汲取教训」,他们于2月14日在普尔瓦马(查谟和克什米尔)发现了一次袭击,令44名联盟士兵死了。




昨天,印度空军对巴基斯坦进行了一系列袭击。新德里国防部长维杰·戈卡莱(Vijay Gokhale)解释说,恐怖份子训练营位于开伯尔普赫图赫瓦省的巴拉科特,距离巴基斯坦首都伊斯兰堡约200公里。

根据印度情报,该营地是伊斯兰原教旨主义组织穆罕默德军(Jaish-e-Mohammed)(JeM)的基地之一,该组织声称对克什米尔的袭击负责。 这位秘书说,爆炸案中有200多名恐怖份子丧生,即使其他消息来源声称有超过350名遇难者。 死者中还有穆罕默德军首脑阿兹哈(Jeus Masood Azhar)的姐夫尤素夫(Yusuf Azhar)。

据报导,巴基斯坦军队在印度乌里地区向边境发射手榴弹进行报复。2016年的后者是一次袭击事件,重新点燃了两个邻国之间的冲突,双方长期以来在克什米尔问题上争执不下。

乌里的冲突导致了整整几个月的宵禁,人口中发生的暴力冲突,一些学校被烧毁、削弱了学生参加考试的能力,并与国内其他地区的同龄人保持同步。基本上,当地人口损失最多。

专家们想知道这场冲突是否会导致真正的战争,例如1999年卡吉尔地区的战争。今天发表在《印度教时报》上的一篇社论指出,新冲突的第一个结果,是获得印度总理纳伦德拉·莫迪 (Narendra Modi) 选举计划的支持。




1965年印巴战争或第二次克什米尔战争,是1965年4月至1965年9月间印度与巴基斯坦两国之间的战争。为期五个月的战争造成双方数千人伤亡。它在联合国下授权停火,之后发表了塔什干宣言。

The India-Pakistan War of 1965

The 1965 war between India and Pakistan was the second conflict between the two countries over the status of the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The clash did not resolve this dispute, but it did engage the United States and the Soviet Union in ways that would have important implications for subsequent superpower involvement in the region.

A patrol walks in the Haji Pir pass sector of Kashmir region. (AP Photo)
The dispute over this region originated in the process of decolonization in South Asia. When the British colony of India gained its independence in 1947, it was partitioned into two separate entities: the secular nation of India and the predominantly Muslim nation of Pakistan. Pakistan was composed of two noncontiguous regions, East Pakistan and West Pakistan, separated by Indian territory. The state of Jammu and Kashmir, which had a predominantly Muslim population but a Hindu leader, shared borders with both India and West Pakistan. The argument over which nation would incorporate the state led to the first India-Pakistan War in 1947–48 and ended with UN mediation. Jammu and Kashmir, also known as “Indian Kashmir” or just “Kashmir,” joined the Republic of India, but the Pakistani Government continued to believe that the majority Muslim state rightfully belonged to Pakistan.

Conflict resumed again in early 1965, when Pakistani and Indian forces clashed over disputed territory along the border between the two nations. Hostilities intensified that August when the Pakistani Army attempted to take Kashmir by force. The attempt to seize the state was unsuccessful, and the second India-Pakistan War reached a stalemate. This time, the international politics of the Cold War affected the nature of the conflict.

The United States had a history of ambivalent relations with India. During the 1950s, U.S. officials regarded Indian leadership with some caution due to India’s involvement in the nonaligned movement, particularly its prominent role at the Bandung Conference of 1955. The United States hoped to maintain a regional balance of power, which meant not allowing India to influence the political development of other states. However, a 1962 border conflict between India and China ended with a decisive Chinese victory, which motivated the United States and the United Kingdom to provide military supplies to the Indian Army. After the clash with China, India also turned to the Soviet Union for assistance, which placed some strains on U.S.-Indian relations. However, the United States also provided India with considerable development assistance throughout the 1960s and 1970s.

U.S.-Pakistani relations had been more consistently positive. The U.S. Government looked to Pakistan as an example of a moderate Muslim state and appreciated Pakistani assistance in holding the line against communist expansion by joining the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) in 1954 and the Baghdad Pact (later renamed the Central Treaty Organization, or CENTO) in 1955. Pakistan’s interest in these pacts stemmed from its desire to develop its military and defensive capabilities, which were substantially weaker than those of India. Both the United States and the United Kingdom supplied arms to Pakistan in these years.

After Pakistani troops invaded Kashmir, India moved quickly to internationalize the regional dispute. It asked the United Nations to reprise its role in the First India-Pakistan War and end the current conflict. The Security Council passed Resolution 211 on September 20 calling for an end to the fighting and negotiations on the settlement of the Kashmir problem, and the United States and the United Kingdom supported the UN decision by cutting off arms supplies to both belligerents. This ban affected both belligerents, but Pakistan felt the effects more keenly since it had a much weaker military in comparison to India. The UN resolution and the halting of arms sales had an immediate impact. India accepted the ceasefire on September 21 and Pakistan on September 22.

The ceasefire alone did not resolve the status of Kashmir, and both sides accepted the Soviet Union as a third-party mediator. Negotiations in Tashkent concluded in January 1966, with both sides giving up territorial claims, withdrawing their armies from the disputed territory. Nevertheless, although the Tashkent agreement achieved its short-term aims, conflict in South Asia would reignite a few years later.



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